Google Wisely Pauses Move to Impose Accessibility Restrictions


Last month, in “Google’s Extremely Shortsighted and Bizarre New Restrictions on Accessibility Services”  —https://lauren.vortex.com/2017/11/13/googles-extremely-shortsighted-and-bizarre-new-restrictions-on-accessibility-services — I was highly critical of Google’s move to restrict Android app accessibility services only to apps that were specifically helping disabled persons. 

Google’s actions were assumed to be aimed at preventing security problems that can result when these accessibility services are abused — but these services also implement critical functionalities to other well-behaved apps that cannot currently be provided to most Android users without the use of those services.

My summary statement in that post regarding this issue was:

“The determining factor shouldn’t be whether or not an app is using an accessibility service function within the specific definition of helping a particular class of users, but rather whether or not the app is behaving in an honest and trustworthy manner when it uses those functions.”

I’m pleased to report that Google is apparently now in the process of reevaluating their entire stance on this important matter. Developers have received a note from Google announcing that they are “pausing” their decision, and including this text:

“If you believe your app uses the Accessibility API for a responsible, innovative purpose that isn’t related to accessibility, please respond to this email and tell us more about how your app benefits users. This kind of feedback may be helpful to us as we complete our evaluation of accessibility services.”

Bingo. This is exactly the approach that Google should be taking to this situation, and I’m very glad to see that the negative public reactions to their earlier announcement have been taken to heart.

We’ll have to wait and see what Google’s final determinations are regarding this area, but my thanks to the Google teams involved for giving the feedback the serious consideration that it deserves.

–Lauren–

Risks of Google Home and Amazon Echo as 24/7 Bugs


One of the most frequent questions that I receive these days relates to the privacy of “smart speaker” devices such as Google Home, Amazon Echo, and other similar devices appearing from other firms. 

As these devices proliferate around us — driven by broad music libraries, powerful AI assistants, and a rapidly growing pantheon of additional capabilities — should we have privacy concerns?

Or more succinctly, should we worry about these “always on” microphones being subverted into 24/7 bugging devices?

The short and quick answer is yes. We do need to be concerned.

The full and more complete answer is decidedly more complicated and nuanced.

The foundational truth is fairly obvious — if you have microphones around, whether they’re in phones, voice-controlled televisions, webcams, or the rising category of smart speaker devices, the potential for bugging exists, with an obvious focus on Internet-connected devices.

Indeed, many years ago I began writing about the risks of cellphones being used as bugs, quite some time before it became known that law enforcement was using such techniques, and well before smartphone apps made some forms of cellphone bugging trivially simple.

And while I’m an enthusiastic user of Google Home devices (I try to avoid participating in the Amazon ecosystem in any way) the potential privacy issues with smart speakers have always been present — and how we deal with them going forward is crucial.

For more background, please see:

“Why Google Home Will Change the World” –https://lauren.vortex.com/2016/11/10/why-google-home-will-change-the-world

Since I’m most familiar with Google’s devices in this context, I will be using them for my discussion here, but the same sorts of issues apply to all microphone-enabled smart speaker products regardless of manufacturer.

There are essentially two categories of privacy concerns in this context.

The first is “accidental” bugging. That is, unintended collection of voice data, due to hardware and/or firmware errors or defects.

An example of this occurred with the recent release of Google’s Home Mini device. Some early units could potentially send a continuous stream of audio data to Google, rather than the intended behavior of only sending audio after the “hot word” phrase was detected locally on the unit (e.g. “Hey Google”).  The cause related to an infrequently used manual switch on the Mini, which Google quickly disabled with a firmware update.

Importantly, the Mini gave “clues” that something was wrong. The activity lights reportedly stayed on — indicating voice data being processed — and the recorded data showed up in user “My Activity” for users’ inspection (and/or deletion). For more regarding Google’s excellent My Activity system, please see:

“The Google Page That Google Haters Don’t Want You to Know About” –  https://lauren.vortex.com/2017/04/20/the-google-page-that-google-haters-dont-want-you-to-know-about

Cognizant of the privacy sensitivities surrounding microphones, smart speaker firms have taken proactive steps to try avoid problems. As I noted above, the normal model is to only send audio data to the cloud for processing after hearing the “hot word” phrase locally on the device. 

Also, these devices typically include a button or switch that users can employ to manually disable the microphones.

I’ll note here that Google lately took a step backwards in this specific respect. Until recently, you could mute the microphone by voice command, e.g., “OK Google, mute the microphone.” But now Google has disabled this voice command, with the devices replying that you must use the switch or button to disable the mic.

This is not a pro-privacy move. While I can understand Google wanting to avoid unintended microphone muting that would then require users to manually operate the control on the device to re-enable the mic, there are many situations where you need to quickly disable the mic (e.g. during phone calls, television programs, or other situations where Google Home is being discussed) to avoid false triggering when the hotword phrase happens to be mentioned. 

The correct way of dealing with this situation would be to make voice-operated microphone muting capability an option in the Google Home app. It can default to off, but users who prefer the ability to quickly mute the microphone by voice should be able to enable such an option.

So far we’ve been talking about accidental bugging. What about “purposeful” bugging?

Now it really starts to get complicated. 

My explicit assumption is that the major firms producing these devices and their supporting infrastructures would never willingly engage in purposeful bugging of their own accord. 

Unfortunately, in today’s world, that’s only one aspect of the equation.

Could these categories of devices (from any manufacturers) be hacked into being full-time bugs by third-parties unaffiliated with these firms? We have to assume that the answer in theory (and based on some early evidence) is yes, but we can also assume that these firms have made this possibility as unlikely as possible, and will continually work to make such attacks impractical.

Sad to say, of much more looming concern is governments going to these firms and ordering/threatening them into pushing special firmware to targeted devices (or perhaps to devices en masse) to enable bugging capabilities. In an age where an admitted racist, Nazi-sympathizing, criminal serial sexual predator resides in the White House and controls the USA law enforcement and intelligence agencies, we can’t take any possibilities off of the table. Google for one has a long and admirable history of resisting government attempts at overreach, but — as just one example — we don’t know how far the vile, lying creature in the Oval Office would be willing to go to achieve his evil ends.

Further complicating this analysis is a lack of basic public information about the hardware/firmware structure of these devices.

For example, is it possible in Google Home devices for firmware to be installed that would enable audio monitoring without blinking those activity lights? Could firmware changes keep the microphone active even if the manual disable button or switch has been triggered by the user, causing the device mic to appear disabled when it was really still enabled?

These are largely specific hardware/firmware design questions, and so far my attempts to obtain information about these aspects from Google have been unsuccessful.

If you were hoping for a brilliant, clear-cut, “This will solve all of these problems!” recommendation here, I’m afraid that I must disappoint you.

Beyond the obvious suggestion that the hardware of these devices should be designed so that “invisible bugging” potentials are minimized, and the even more obvious (but not very practical) suggestion of unplugging the units if and when you’re concerned (’cause let’s face it, the whole point is for them to be on the ready when you need them!), I don’t have any magic wand solutions to offer here. 

Ultimately, all of us — firms like Google and Amazon, their users, and the community at large — need to figure out where to draw the lines to achieve a reasonable balance between the vast positive potential of these devices and the very real potential risks that come with them as well.

Nobody said that this stuff was going to be easy. 

Be seeing you.

–Lauren–

In the Amazon vs. YouTube War, Google is Right — and Wrong


You’ve probably heard that there’s an escalating “YouTube War” between Amazon and Google, that has now led to Google cutting of users of Amazon’s Fire and Echo Show products from YouTube, leaving legions of confused and upset users in the wake.

I’m no fan of Amazon. I intensely dislike their predatory business practices and the way that they treat many of their workers. I studiously avoid buying from Amazon.

Google has a number of completely legitimate grievances with Amazon. The latter has refused to carry key Google products that compete with Amazon products, while still designing those Amazon devices to access Google services like YouTube. Amazon has also played fast and loose with the YouTube Terms of Service in a number of ways.

I can understand Google finally getting fed up with this kind of Amazon behavior. Google is absolutely right to be upset.

However, Google is wrong in the approach that they’ve taken to deal with these issues, and this may do them considerable ongoing damage, even long after the current dispute is settled.

Cutting those Amazon device users off from YouTube with essentially a “go access YouTube some other way” message is not buying any good will from those users — exactly the opposite, in fact.

These users aren’t concerned about Google’s marketing issues, they just want to see the programming that they bought their devices to access — and YouTube is a major part of that.

As the firm that’s cutting off these users from YouTube, it’s Google that will take the brunt of user anger, and the situation unnecessarily sows distrust about Google’s behavior in the future. This can impact users’ overall feelings about Google in negative ways that go far beyond YouTube.

Worse, this kind of situation is providing long-term ammunition to Google haters who are looking for any excuses to try bring antitrust or other unwarranted regulatory focus onto Google itself.

Essentially, Amazon laid a trap for Google in this instance, and Google walked right into it.

There is a much better approach available to Google for dealing with this.

Rather than cutting off those Amazon device users, permit them to continue accessing YouTube, but only after presentation of a brief interstitial very succinctly explaining Google’s grievances with Amazon. Rather than making enemies of those users, bring them around to an understanding of Google’s point of view.

But above all, don’t punish those Amazon users by cutting them off from YouTube as you’re doing now.

Your righteous battle is with Amazon. But those Amazon device users should be treated as your allies in this war, not as your enemies!

And that’s the truth.

–Lauren–

Google Agrees: It’s Time for More Humans Fighting YouTube Hate and Child Exploitation Videos


Regular readers of my missives have probably grown tired of my continuing series of posts relating to my concerns regarding particular categories of videos that have increasingly contaminated Google’s YouTube platform.

Very briefly: I’m one of YouTube’s biggest fans. I consider YT to be a wonder of the world, both technologically and in terms of vast swathes of its amazing entertainment and educational content. I would be horrified to see YouTube disappear from the face of the planet.

That said, you know that I’ve been expressing increasing concerns regarding extremist and other hate speech, child exploitation, and dangerous prank/dare videos that increasingly proliferate and persist on YouTube, often heavily monetized with ads.

I have never ascribed evil motives to Google in these regards. YouTube needs to bring in revenue both for its own operations and to pay creators — and the absolute scale of YouTube is almost unimaginably enormous.

At Google’s kind of scale, it’s completely understandable that Google has a strong institutional bias toward automated, algorithmic systems to deal with content of all sorts.

However, I have long argued that the changing shape of the Internet requires more humans to “ride herd” on those algorithms, to fill in the gaps where algorithms tend to slump, and to provide critical sanity checking. This is of course an expensive proposition, but my view has been that Google has the resources to do this, given the will to do so.

I’m pleased to report that Google/YouTube has announced major moves in exactly these sorts of directions that I have long recommended:

https://youtube.googleblog.com/2017/12/expanding-our-work-against-abuse-of-our.html

YouTube will hire *human* video reviewers to a total of over 10K in 2018, will expand  liaisons with outside expert groups and individuals, and will tighten advertising parameters (including more human curation), among other very positive steps.

At YouTube scale, successful execution of these plans will be anything but trivial, but as I’ve said about various issues, Google *can* do this!

My thanks to the YouTube teams, and especially to YouTube CEO Susan Wojcicki, for these very welcome moves that should help to assure a great future both for YouTube and its many users!

–Lauren–

Easy Access to SSL Certificate Information Is Returning to Google’s Chrome Browser


You may recall that back early this year I expressed concerns that direct, obvious access to SSL encryption security certificate information had been removed from Google’s Chrome browser:

“Here’s Where Google Hid the SSL Certificate Information That You May Need” – https://lauren.vortex.com/2017/01/28/heres-where-google-hid-the-ssl-certificate-information-you-may-need

As I noted then, there are frequent situations where it’s extremely useful to inspect the SSL certificate info, because the use of SSL (https: — that is, the mere presence of a “green padlock” on a connection) indicates that the connection is encrypted, but that’s all. The padlock alone does not render any sort of judgment regarding the authenticity or legitimacy of the site itself — but the details in an SSL cert can often provide useful insight into these sorts of aspects.

After the change to Chrome that I reported last January, it was not longer possible to easily obtain the certificate data by simply doing the obvious thing — clicking the green padlock and then an additional click to see the cert details. It was still possible to access that data, but doing so required manipulation of the browser “developers tools” panels which are (understandably) not obvious to most users.

I’m pleased to report that easy access to the SSL cert data via the green padlock icon is returning to Chrome. It is already present in the Linux beta version that I run, and would be expected to reach Chrome’s stable versions on all platforms in due course. 

With this feature in place, you simply click the green padlock icon and then click the obvious “Valid” link under the “Certificate” section at the top. The SSL cert data opens right up for quick and direct inspection. The version of Chrome that you’re running currently may not have this feature implemented quite yet, but it’s on the way.

My thanks to the Chrome team!

–Lauren–